Most of the causes of tooth pain are limited to oral/dental causes.
The oral causes of toothpain are:
- Tooth Decay or Cavity (being the most common cause of tooth pain)
The most common cause of tooth pain is Tooth Decay. Tooth decay is the degradation of the tooth due to harmful acids secreted by bacteria in the oral cavity.
- Gum Disease
The next important causing agent of tooth pain is gum disease. Poor oral hygiene leads to bacterial plaque accumulation and the toxins release from these bacteria damage the gums. The gums become swollen, red and painful (Gingivitis). If gum disease is not controlled early, you are at a risk of losing your tooth.
- Root Sensitivity
Root sensitivity (commonly termed as tooth sensitivity) is when the roots of the teeth become exposed due to recession of the gums. The roots are very sensitive and respond with pain to reasonably hot or cold foods.
- Cracked teeth
A painful accidental blow or extreme biting force can cause the tooth fracture which can become a source of intense pain whenever the fractured tooth is even touched.
- Temporomandibular joint(TMJ) Disorder
TMJ disorder is an inflammatory reaction at the sight of the lodgment of the lower jaw at the skull. Various factors such as Bruxism (Night grinding or teeth grinding), arthritis can cause TMJ disorders.
- Wisdom tooth eruption or impaction
The eruption of Wisdom tooth often causes pain due to its misalignement. It can become impacted (does not erupt) and require surgical extraction.
People who have undergone fillings can get severe toothache suddenly. This might be because of the spread of the decay to the pulp and you will need to undergo root canal treatment for that. It can also occur due to accumulation of fluid with organic debris and bacteria between the filling and your teeth often termed as microleakage in dental jargon.